Government and Politics
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CONTENT INTRODUCTION 3 POWER 3 How is political power distributed among members of society? 3 TYPES OF AUTHORITY 4 Traditional Authority 4 Legal-Rational Authority 4 Charismatic Authority 5 TYPES OF GOVERNMENT 5 Monarchy 6 Oligarchy 6 Dictatorship and Totalitarianism 6 Democracy 7 POLITICAL BEHAVIOR IN THE UNITED STATES 8 Political Socialization 8 Participation and Apathy 9 Women and Politics 10 Interest Groups 11 MODELS OF POWER STRUCTURE IITED STATES 12 Elite Model 12 Pluralist Model 14 Who Does Rule? 15 SUMMARY 15 KEY TERMS 16 REFERENCES: 17 Introduction Political system is one of the subsystem of society, and play sufficient role in our life.
The term political system refers to a recognized set of procedures for implementing and obtaining the goals of a group. Each society must have a political system in order to maintain recognized procedures for allocating valued resources. In political scientist Harold Lasswell’s (1936) terms, politics is who gets what, when, and how.
Thus, like religion and the family, a political system is a cultural universal; it is a social institution found in every society. We will focus on government and politics within the United States as well as other industrialized nations and preindustrial societies. In their study of politics and political systems, sociologists are concerned with social interactions among individuals and groups and their impact on the larger political order.
For example, in studying the controversy over the nomination of Judge Robert Bork, sociologists might wish to focus on how a change in the group structure of American society—the increasing importance of the black vote for southern Democratic candidates—affected the decision making of Howell Heflin and other senators (and, ultimately, the outcome of the Bork confirmation battle). From a sociological perspective, therefore, a fundamental question is: how .Скачать