Portuguese emigration after World War II

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with the banking and insurance sectors also centered mainly in the Lisbon area, would absorb the majority of skilled or highly skilled workers and professionals. In fact, neither of these groups was particularly inclined toward emigration. On the eve of the 1974 Revolution, the state was ready to promulgate an unprecedented liberal law, justified on the grounds that emigration was highly beneficial for Portugal because it promoted gains in productivity and the rationalization of production methods.

The law concluded with the following statement: “Emigration, which acts as a positive factor in modernization and the rationalization of labor, contributed greatly to the progress and development of the country. ” Proposta de lei sobre polнtica de emigraзгo, in Actas da Cвmara Corporativa 142 (February 23, 1973). See also Ribeiro, Emigraзгo portuguesa, 95-110.

Individual freedom to emigrate and return were finally written into the 1976 Constitution. By that time, however, most European countries had shifted to a “closed-door” policy. The Evolution of Migration Flows Between 1950 and 1988, the Portuguese Emigration Bureau, the Secretaria de Estado de Emigraзгo, registered 1,375,000 legal departures.

The figure does not include the 105,000 special legalizations performed by the Emigration Bureau between 1963 and 1969. See Antunes, “A emigraзгo portuguesa,” 13-15. Of these, five countries absorbed 82 percent (see Table 10.

1). This official picture should be compared with French and German sources, which state that the number of Portuguese migrants entering these two countries, during this period, was 1,259,000 immigrants. The estimate includes 975,000 arrivals to France and 212,000 arrivals to Germany, respectively.

Even revising Portuguese emigration figures taking into account only these two destinations, emigration between 1950 and 1988 totaled at least 2,152,000. This means that during this period, at least 36 percent of .

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