Portuguese emigration after World War II
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Of those who went to France, 56 percent worked in construction and public works. Returnees followed a dominant economic trajectory. Before emigration, 45 percent worked in agriculture and 18 percent in construction.
As emigrants, 37 percent worked in construction and 32 percent in manufacturing. Employment was quite different in France and Germany. In France, 49 percent of the returnees worked in construction and 25 percent in manufacturing; in Germany, 13 percent worked in construction and 60 percent in manufacturing.
On returning, 38 percent worked in agriculture, 18 percent in construction, and 17 percent in small trades or catering. It is important to note that only 59 percent of returnees opted for an active life, and that the majority of those working in agriculture or small businesses were self employed. For the majority of these returning migrants, emigration was a success story.
The most frequent reasons for return were missing the family and native land and concern with the children's education, 35 percent; and health, retirement, and labor accidents, 26 percent. A house, major appliances, a car, a small trade or restaurant, the opportunity for wives to stop working, the return to the region of departure, and a varying, but frequently reasonable, level of savings all guaranteed upward mobility. As far as the Portuguese economy is concerned, however, returnee contributions are debatable.
The overwhelming majority of returnees either are illiterate (12 percent), have no formal schooling (24 percent), or have attended only primary school (56 percent). New skills acquired have not been easily transferable; nor are former emigrants interested in taking .Скачать