Rise of sociology as an intellectual tradition. Classical tradition in sociology of the XIX century
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(as a rule, the vanguard of the intelligentsia). N. K.
Michailovski as a founder of the theory of social progress formulated the law of antagonism between the state and personality. Antagonism is given birth because the society develops fast and makes more complex, and man, as a result of social division of labour, turns to the bearer of a particular function of the society. The antagonism could be overcome if a personality were given more liberty with regards to the society (the principle of the personality's supremacy over the society).
He asserted that the crowd obeying the impact of leaders loses the ability to critically assess their words and actions. The psychological movement in Russia of the 1890s is presented by E. V.
de Roberti, N. I. Kareev etc.
They analyzed such fundamental issues of social development as its primary reasons and motive powers, progress and regress, the role of the mass and personality in history etc. Their analysis proceeded from the assumption that individual and collective psychology is dominant at determining human behaviour. It means that all social phenomena are of psychological character so the society is a system of psychical and practical interactions of people.
Of other Russian researchers who worked in empiric sociology in the first decade after the October revolution of 1917 one can mention P. A. Sorokin who had to flee away abroad, A.
V. Chayanov, S. G.
Strumilin, A. K. Gastev etc.
For instance, an agrarian economist A. V. Chayanov (1888-1938) developed a theory of the family labour household in the countryside.
He managed to create an integral conception of the organization of peasantry household and make a conclusion about lack of the category of wages in a non-capitalistic peasantry household and its turning to the pure profit of the family members. Thus, late XIX - early .Скачать