Rise of sociology as an intellectual tradition. Classical tradition in sociology of the XIX century
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not excluded from government, and middle class is greater and stronger than the rich and the poor. Traditionally the origins of sociology are seen in European philosophy of the XVIII century, a period that is referred to as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason. This movement advocated rationality as a means to establish an authoritative system of ethics, aesthetics, and knowledge.
The intellectual leaders of this movement regarded themselves as courageous and elite, and saw their purpose as leading the world toward progress and out of a long period of doubtful tradition, full of irrationality, superstition and tyranny. The Enlightenment also provided a framework for the American and French Revolutions, as well as leading to the rise of capitalism and birth of socialism. The XVIII century also saw a continued rise of empirical philosophical ideas, and their application to political economy, government and sciences such as physics, chemistry and biology.
However, investigations of this age were far from being systemic and integral. Lots of important issues were not paid attention to, that's why achievements in learning social phenomena were less considerable as compared to other sciences. Of utmost interest of the period became study of social communities and processes of their development and functioning.
The study was caused by two factors. The first factor was industrial development of European countries; the second one was that all spheres of human activities became more complicated that raised problems of people's interactions and their government, creation of social order in the society etc. When problems were realized and sounded, prerequisites for developing a new science appeared, science .Скачать