Rise of sociology as an intellectual tradition. Classical tradition in sociology of the XIX century

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designers, technicians, and labour); in short, between those who make money and those who produce goods. His Theory of Business Enterprise (1904) further widened his renown. Sociological knowledge grew not only in Western Europe and the USA.

On the threshold of the XIX-XX centuries Russian sociological thought was gaining the world level, developing from social philosophy through social theory to sociological theory. In this period fame came to such thinkers as N. K.

Michailovski, E. V. de Roberti, M.

A. Bakunin, P. A.

Sorokin etc. One of the most influential movements in Russia was anarchism. Its founding fathers were M.

A. Bakunin (1814-1876) and P. A.

Kropotkin (1842-1921). Anarchism is the political belief that the society should have no government, laws, police, or other authority, but should be a free association of all its members. M.

A. Bakunin's ideas are as follows: · Liberty is the only medium in which intelligence, dignity, and the happiness of man can develop; not official “liberty”, licensed, measured and regulated by the state; not individual liberty, selfish, mean and fictitious, which considers the rights of the individual as limited by the rights of the state, and therefore necessarily results in the reduction of the rights of the individual to zero; · Liberty has a social character as it recognizes no other restrictions than those which are traced for us by the laws of our own nature; such laws are immanent in us, inherent, constituting the very basis of our being, material as well as intellectual and moral; instead, finding them a limit, we must consider them as the real conditions and effective reason for our liberty. P.

A. Kropotkin went further. He borrowed socialist ideas and developed them in the theory of socialism .


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