Rise of sociology as an intellectual tradition. Classical tradition in sociology of the XIX century
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To M. Weber, social actions fall into four basic types: (1) action oriented by expectations of behaviour of other people in the surrounding milieu (in Russian terminology: целерациональное действие). It means that an individual is rational as he clearly sees the aim, means for its achievement and foresees other people's reaction to it; the criterion of rationality is success; (2) action oriented to some absolute value as embodied in some ethical, aesthetic, or religious code (ценностно-рациональное действие).
In other words, action which is morally guided, and not undertaken simply for one's own gain; (3) action guided by emotive response to or feelings about the surrounding milieu (аффективное действие); (4) action performed as part of long-standing societal tradition (традиционное действие). Of these four types, the last two are non-social behaviour whereas the first two types are inherently more social forms of human action, because they involve subjective assessment and result from the process of rationalization. Anyway, M.
Weber never asserted that any of these types could operate independently of one another in the human individual. Typically, social action is guided by some combination of motivations, including both rational (the first and second types) and non-rational elements (the third and fourth types). M.
Weber examined the concept of social action within a number of sociological fields, from class behaviour to politics and religion. Its best-known example is contained in his famous work, The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism (1904), in which the sociologist examines the motivation behind social action in the economic sphere. Specifically, he suggests that the spirit that drives modern capitalistic enterprise is motivated by the ethical doctrine of Protestantism.
M. Weber notes a relationship between the zeal for business profit and membership in specific Protestant denominations in Europe in the .Скачать