Rise of sociology as an intellectual tradition. Classical tradition in sociology of the XIX century
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from the majority of people who do not match up with their abilities or attributes. Members of inherited elite are called aristocrats. Abilities or attributes that identify elite vary.
They include: · high level of academic qualifications, · high level of experience in a given field, · high intelligence, · high natural abilities such as athletic abilities, · high creativity, · good taste, · claimed God-given qualities, abilities, or status. Commonly, large amount of personal wealth, often assessed as a reward of elite qualities by those who are impressed by it, are insufficient on their own, as every nouveau riche can attest. Elitism takes many forms, some of which are positive and some negative.
Positive forms of elitism are formed in situations in which members of a community with special abilities or special qualifications are afforded greater respect in honour of their abilities or qualifications. Their position in the top of their field is used in order to benefit everybody. Negative forms of elitism are formed when a group of people with high abilities or attributes conspire to give themselves extra privileges at the expense of all other people.
This form of elitism may be described as discrimination. At times elitism is closely related to social class and stratification. V.
Pareto thought that a social system is in constant circulation as the elites are transformed - the old ones decline, the new ones emerge, so the elite circulation takes place. Thus, the society should be considered “the cemetery of elites”. V.
Pareto asserted that the bourgeoisie which emerged as new aristocracy, or elite as a result of the French revolution, threatens to collapse. For him, revolutions were also circulation of elites as a dominant social class is opposed not by the population but by a new elite which is supported by the population and which comes further and further from it as far as it gets more access to power. The question sounded in E.
Durkheim's theory “How is order possible? ” in V. Pareto's theory would sound as “How is the society governed?