Rise of sociology as an intellectual tradition. Classical tradition in sociology of the XIX century

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in relation to social classes. He basically highlighted class struggle and supported the working class for a healthy society. However, K.

Marx was rather pessimistic about capitalism because he witnessed ruin of peasantry and rapid enrichment of the bourgeoisie, growth of poverty and crime in towns etc. That's why he put forward a new approach to social development, that of destroying the old society and substituting it with a new one, more fair. In other words, advocating revolutionary change of the society K.

Marx used the conflict perspective, that's why he is regarded an initiator of the theory of social conflict. An Italian scientist Vilfredo Pareto (1848-1923) made several important contributions to economics, sociology and moral philosophy, especially in the study of income distribution and in the analysis of individuals' choices. He introduced the concept of Pareto efficiency and helped to develop the field of microeconomics with ideas such as indifference curves.

He is well known for the observation that 20% of the population owned 80% of the property in Italy, later generalized (by Joseph Juran and others) into the Pareto principle, and generalized further to the concept of a Pareto distribution. The Pareto index is a measure of inequality of income distribution. V.

Pareto's social policies were put on paper in his work, Mind and Society, in which he discussed questions of elites and elitism. Elite is a selected group of people whose personal abilities, specialized training or other attributes place them at the top of any field. Elitism is a belief or attitude that elite are the people whose views on a matter are to be taken most seriously, or who are alone fit to govern.

Thus, elite is seen as occupying a special position of authority or privilege in a group, set apart .


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