Rise of sociology as an intellectual tradition. Classical tradition in sociology of the XIX century
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The researcher believed that he could study history and the society scientifically and discern tendencies of history and the resulting outcome of social conflicts. Marxist analysis of history is based on a distinction between means of production, or land, natural resources, and technology that are necessary for the production of material goods, and social relations of production, i. e.
social relationships people enter into as they acquire and use means of production. Together these comprise the mode of production. For K.
Marx, the society is a system of social relations (economic, political, legal etc. ) where the subjects of social relations are groups of people, or classes and individuals. He asserted that the economy determines the social structure in the statement about the economic basis and superstructure, i.
e. social, cultural and political phenomena are determined by the mode of production. To his mind, economic, cultural, and political changes go together in coherent patterns, and they are linked because economic and technological changes determine political and cultural changes.
K. Marx observed that within any given society the mode of production changes, and European societies had progressed from a feudal mode of production to a capitalist one. In general, he believed that the means of production change more rapidly than the relations of production.
A proof is that we develop a new technology, such as the Internet, and only later laws to regulate that technology are developed. For K. Marx, the mismatch between the basis and superstructure, or between economic and social, is a major source of social disruption and conflict.
As for social conflict, it was Karl Marx who provided extensive work on conflict theory relating to the economic basis of the society .Скачать