Social stratification and social inequality
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those who give orders and those who receive orders, then occupational stratification is dealt with. Although there may be other forms of stratification, of central sociological importance are economic, political, and occupational stratification. P.
A. Sorokin held that people move in the social space. Methods appropriate to find their position in the social space are somewhat reminiscent of the system of coordinates used for locating an object in the geometrical space.
So, to find one's position in the social space means to define his relations to other individuals and to other groups, the relation of these groups to each other within the population, and the relation of this population to other populations constituting the mankind. That's why the social space is defined as the population of the globe, and a social position - as the integrity of its relations with the other groups of the population. These relations - between groups and within a specific group - make up the system of coordinates enabling to locate a social position of any person in the social space.
This approach helps to consider people holding different social positions. People moving or transition from one social position to another in the social space, P. A.
Sorokin defines as social mobility. There are two types of social mobility, horizontal and vertical. The first concerns movements from one social position to another situated on the same level, as in a movement from work as a foreman with Volvo to similar work with Ford.
The second refers to transitions of people from one social stratum to one higher or lower in the social scale, as in ascendant movements from the rags to the riches. Both ascending and descending movements occur in two principal forms.Скачать