Society as a system
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Country is a part of the globe that has definite territorial fronties and possesses state sovereignity. State is political organization of the given country including a particular type of power (monarchy or republic), bodies and structure of ruling (government, Parliament). Society is social organization of the given country based on social structure.
Countries are studied by geography, states - by politology, societies - by sociology. It's easier to present a society within the framework of certain state fronties, for instance, Belarusian society coincides with Belarus as the country and state. The same concerns British, French or American society, but the territorial or state criterion is not always rightful as there is no such phenomenon as the society of Luxembourg.
Each society is characterized by some attributes but researchers do not agree about their number. For instance, in 1967 an American sociologist Robert Marsh suggested the following attributes of the society: · constant territory, for instance, France in its state bounderies; · reproduction of the population due to native child-bearing mainly, and migration plays an insignificant role; · highly developed culture; · political independence which means that society is not part of another system, for instance, colonial societies like Indian couldn't be considered as such before India obtained independence. This classification was regarded as incomplete by its author himself; some of its criteria are debated, say that of a highly developed culture.
It can't be applied to such countries as the USA where representatives of various religious and ethnic groups live, so the USA is by right called a “melting pot”. There are no common values and ideals shared by the whole population,.Скачать