The cybernetics movements
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Biofeedback or neurofeedback is a subject of investigation by researchers in medicine and psychology. The Santa Fe Institute has developed simulation methods based on the idea of cellular automata. This paper recounts about sixty years of the history of the cybernetics movement in the United States, divided into five year intervals.
The focus will be on the third group, McCulloch's cybernetics. EARLY 1940S In 1943 two landmark papers were published. Warren McCulloch and Walter Pitts wrote, “A Logical Calculus of the Ideas Immanent in Nervous Activity.
” (McCulloch and Pitts, 1943) This article sought to understand how a network of neurons functions so that we experience what we call “an idea. ” They presented their explanation in mathematical form. Arthuro Rosenblueth, Norbert Wiener and Julian Bigelow published, “Behavior, Purpose, Teleology.
” (Rosenblueth, et al 1943) They observed behavior, which they interpreted as purposeful, and then sought to explain how this phenomenon could happen without teleology, using only Aristotle's efficient cause. Also in the early 1940s Wiener worked on a radar-guided anti-aircraft gun. LATE 1940S In the late 1940s the early Macy Conferences were held in New York City.
They were attended by scientists including Norbert Wiener, Julian Bigelow, John von Neumann, Margaret Mead, Gregory Bateson Ross Ashby, Grey Walter, and Heinz von Foerster. By 1949 three key books were published: Wiener's Cybernetics: Or Control and Communication in the Animal and the Machine, Von Neumann's and Morgenstern's Theory of Games and Economic Behavior, and Shannon's and Weaver's, The Mathematical Theory of Communication. These three books defined a new science of information and regulation.
EARLY 1950S In the early 1950s more Macy conferences were held.Скачать