Basic perspectives and schools of developing sociology in the XX century
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· tension between workers' “logic of sentiment” and managers' “logic of cost and efficiency” could lead to conflict within organizations. The Hawthorne Effect originally referred to the increase in worker productivity observed when a worker is singled out and made to feel important. Western Electric (sometimes abbreviated WECo) was a US electrical engineering company, the manufacturing arm of the Bell Telephone Company from 1881 to 1984 .
Scientific management or Taylorism is the name of the approach to management and Industrial/Organizational Psychology initiated by Frederick Winslow Taylor in his 1911 monograph The Principles of Scientific Management. The Hawthorne studies had a profound effect on the field of organizational development and with publishing Mayor's book, The Human Problems of an Industrialized Civilization, The field of organizational development (OD) is concerned with the performance, development, and effectiveness of human organizations. initiated development of industrial sociology, in particular, sociology of management, the human relations movement in management and organizational thinking.
Structural functionalism. Another important direction in sociology of the XX century became structural functionalism headed by Talcott Parsons (1902-1979), a central figure at Harvard University who was the best-known sociologist in the United States, and one of the best-known celebrities in the world for many years. Structural functionalism occupies an intermediate position between classical and contemporary sociology.
But T. Parsons and his functional approach became so influential and dominant that by the late 1950s sociology and functionalism became more or less identical. This meant that sociology studied the roles of institutions and social behaviour in the society, the way these are related to other social features, and developed explanations of the society in social terms.
It was developed in T. Parsons' major publications such as .Скачать