Forces Acting on an Airplane
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over the remainder of the foil. This turbulence would be realized as drag up the point of maximum speed at which time the control surfaces and aircraft flying characteristics would be affected. The formation of the boundary layer is a process of layers of air formed one next to the other, ie; the term laminar is derived from the lamination principle involved.
History of Laminar Flow The P-51 Mustang is the first aircraft every intentionally designed to use laminar flow airfoils. However, wartime NACA research data I have shows that Mustangs were not manufactured with a sufficient degree of surface quality to maintain much laminar flow on the wing. The RAE found that the P-63, despite being designed with laminar airfoils, also was not manufactured with sufficient surface quality to have much laminar flow.
The Mustang was a mathematically designed airplane and the wing foil that was to be classified as a "semi-empirical venture" by the British was cleared for adoption on the new design. The wing section would be the only part of the fighter which would be tested in a wind tunnel prior to the first test flight. Due to the speculation of the success of the radical foil, the engineering department was committed to adopt a more conventional airfoil within thirty days of the tests in the event the wing did not come up to specifications.
A one quarter scale model of the wing was designed and constructed for tests in the wing tunnel at the Caiifornia Institute of Technology. The use of this airfoil on the Mustang would greatly add to the drag reducing concept that was paramount in all design phases of the airplane. The few applications of this foil, prior to this time, had been handbuilt structures which .Скачать