Portuguese emigration after World War II
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Portuguesas/Centro de Estudos, 1986). An analysis of the structure of the active native and foreign labor force in France also suggests that the labor market was segmented, with certain jobs specifically taken up by foreign laborers in the public works and construction sectors. In the early 1980s, for example, the portion of unskilled workers was 45 percent among the Portuguese immigrant labor force in France, similar to other foreign groups but much higher than among natives.
The share of unskilled laborers in the French active population was 29 percent. Branco, A estrutura, 70-71. The oil crisis of 1973-74 and the restrictive immigration policies of receiving countries halted the influx of foreigners.
Up to then, however, the major recipient European countries had “open door” immigration policies. The same cannot be said of Portuguese migratory policy. Indeed, until 1974, individual freedom to emigrate was subordinated to the economic and imperial aims of the state.
According to Article 31 of the 1933 Constitution, “The state has the right and the obligation to coordinate and regulate the economic and social life of the Nation with the objective of populating the national territories, protecting emigrants, and disciplining emigration. ” The Estado Novo tried to attain three key goals with this policy: to meet the country's own labor needs, to satisfy its interests in Africa, and to benefit from emigrant remittances with a supervised export of labor. In order to insure the attainment of these goals the Estado Novo enacted several policy measures concerning emigration.
Thus, in 1944 the issuing of ordinary passports to any industrial worker or rural labor was interdicted; in 1947, after a temporary total ban on emigration, a special government agency, simultaneously dependent .Скачать