Portuguese emigration after World War II

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up the same jobs they had abroad. They have used their savings primarily for consumption rather than productive investment. It is undeniable, however, that they have made a major contribution to regional development, and that with more adequate policies, their contribution could increase.

We have described the main features of the Portuguese emigration and return migration. In the last part of this section, we will try to assess its impact on the Portuguese economy and demography. In demographic terms, the impact of emigration between 1960 and 1979, the heaviest period, represented 47 to 55 percent of the country's natural population growth.

Yearly migration rates during that period varied from 5. 3 to 6. 1 migrants per thousand inhabitants, while the annual average number of departures was 82,419.

In the same period, returns are estimated to have been between 30,000 and 37,000; Portugal's annual natural population growth was 95,693. Thus, net migration can be estimated at between 45,400 and 52,400. Based on the 1970 census (total population 8.

569 million), the yearly migration rate between 1960 and 1979 must have oscillated between 5. 3 and 6. 1 migrants per thousand.

See SECP, Boletim anual 1988: 83. For returns see Silva, Retorno, emigraзгo e desenvolvimento, 49-52; Stahl, Perspectivas da emigrзгo, 17. For intercensus periods the numbers were as shown in table 10.

5. It is important to remark that these figures do not account for total impact, because migration caused a significant part of the country's demographic potential to go unfulfilled. TABLE 10.

5 Demographic Evolution, 1951-1981 (in thousands) Natural Growth Effective Growth Net Migration 1951-60 1,090. 8 410. 0 -680.

8 1961-70 10,720. 6 -282. 6 -1,355.

2 1971-81 838. 7 1,284. 1 +445.

4 In economic terms, between 1973 and 1979, emigrant remittances represented 8. 22 percent of the gross domestic product; between 1980 and 1989, the number rose to 10 percent. As a percentage of the GDP, remittances varied between 5.

6 in 1975 and 12. 1 in 1979, according to the Instituto Nacional de Estatнstica. Considering the relative weight of remittances in relation to the .

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