Rise of sociology as an intellectual tradition. Classical tradition in sociology of the XIX century

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knowledge. And sociology was not an exception. Its classical tradition started with the theories worked out by E.

Durkheim, K. Marx, M. Weber, G.

Simmel and other celebrities. A French thinker Emile Durkheim (1858-1917) is widely acknowledged as a founding father of modern sociology, who helped to define the subject-matter of sociology and establish its autonomy as a discipline. In his doctrine of social realism E.

Durkheim saw the domain of sociology as the study of social facts, not individuals. He believed that societies had their own realities which could not simply be reduced to the actions and motives of people, and peopele were molded and constrained by their social settings. In his work, The Rules of Sociological Method (1895), he demonstrated that law was a social fact, embodied in formal, codified rules and not dependent on humans or on any particular act of law enforcement for its existence.

He came to see social norms as regulating people's behaviour by means of institutionalized values which the human internalized, rather than the society simply acting as an external constraint. In another work, The Division of Labour in Society (1893), E. Durkheim argued against H.

Spencer's understanding of social order in industrial societies. To his mind, a pursuit of self-interest would lead to social instability, as manifest in various forms of social deviance such as suicide. He distinguished two forms of social order found in primitive and modern societies.

In primitive societies he identified mechanical solidarity which was based on common beliefs and consensus found in collective consciousness. As societies become industrialized and more complex, the increasing division of labour destroys mechanical solidarity and moral integration, thus rendering social order problematic. E.

Durkheim was well aware that industrial societies exhibited many conflicts and that force was an .


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