Rise of sociology as an intellectual tradition. Classical tradition in sociology of the XIX century
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Due to it, A. Comte thought that industrialization is the result of a scientific way of thinking spread out in all spheres of human life but not of technical and economic progress. However, he rejected the role of general theory in sociology: instead of theoretic generalization of empiric data to make up a whole of them, he presented the society as a simple entity of interconnected facts.
He didn't clearly determine the subject of a new science; either he didn't find its scientific method to learn laws of social development. A great contribution to establishing the methodological basis of sociology, mostly its empiric basis, was made by Lambert Ketle (1796-1874), a French and Belgian mathematician and statistician. He brought in new theoretic and methodological ideas and a new sample of research aimed at solving certain applied problems.
His achievements in sociology are as follows: · discovery of statistical laws; · understanding a social law as a stable tendency of changing means; · methodical recommendations how to formulate questions in forms and questionnaires. Herbert Spencer (1820-1903), a British philosopher, is also acknowledged as one of the founders of sociology as he published a number of works devoted to different domains, such as Principles of Sociology and Principles of Ethics. They included his ideas on evolution, that's why H.
Spencer is seen as the originator of the scientific perspective called Social Darwinism. Furthermore, his major works predated those of Charles Darwin. H.
Spencer's book, First Principles, is an exposition of the evolutionary principles underlying all domains of reality. It was H. Spencer, not Ch.
Darwin who coined the phrase “survival of the fittest”, as well as popularizing of the term “evolution”.Скачать