Rise of sociology as an intellectual tradition. Classical tradition in sociology of the XIX century
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Cours de philosophie positive in 6 volumes (1830-1842), Systиme de politique positive (1850-1854). A. Comte's legacy includes the law of three phases, his contribution to further development of the theory of an industrial society started by Saint-Simon.
It is by his statement of this law that he is best known in the English-speaking world. The law says that the society has gone through three phases: 1) theological, or military authority; 2) metaphysical, or feudal authority; 3) scientific, or positive phase seen as an industrial civilization. In the theological phase man's place in the society and the society's restrictions upon man were referred to God.
The metaphysic phase involved justification of universal rights as something on a higher plane than the authority of any human ruler could countermand. The scientific phase is that one in which people could find solutions to social problems and bring them into force despite of the proclamations of human rights or prophecy of the will of God. For its time, the idea of a scientific phase was considered up-to-date.
A. Comte also formulated the law of three phases: human development (social progress) progresses from a theological stage, in which nature was mythically conceived and man sought the explanation of natural phenomena from supernatural beings, through a metaphysical stage in which nature was conceived of as a result of obscure forces and man sought the explanation of natural phenomena from them to the final positive stage in which all abstract and obscure forces are discarded, and natural phenomena are explained by their constant relationship. This progress is forced through the development of human mind and increasing application of thought, reasoning and logic to the understanding of world.Скачать