Rise of sociology as an intellectual tradition. Classical tradition in sociology of the XIX century
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J J. Rousseau (1712-1778) distinguished classes in the society and believed that man's nature is good but man is “spoilt” by the society. Into the basis of harmonic arrangement of the society he put social agreement, i.
e. consensus of people as reflection of their common will which is expressed in laws. Saint-Simon (1760-1825) was possibly the first to suggest planning as a way to run economy.
To his mind, social problems could be solved by moral and religious reforming, based on employers' good will to better the working conditions. In 1822 he published his work, Plan de traveaux scientifiques nйcessaires pour rйorganiser la sociйtй (План научных работ, необходимых для реорганизации общес-тва), written with Auguste Comte. In the book the thinkers suggested an idea of developing a new science of the society which, by analogy with physics, should be based on observation, experiment and other methods of natural sciences.
Initially, the science was given the name of social physics. By that time a social theory presented a mixed spectrum of various views in which both basic and additional motives were combined; basic motives bore rational and irrational character while economic, political, legal and moral interests constituted the entity of additional ones. Those views reflected thinkers and researchers' outlook, their ideological positions and ways of studying social problems.
In this context legacy by A. Comte (1798-1857), the initiator of sociology, was not an exception. There are two reasons why A.
Comte is acknowledged as the founding father of sociology. First, he developed a systematic and hierarchical classification of all sciences and by including sociology into them, he gave grounds for establishing its autonomy as a discipline; second, in 1839 he changed the name of social physics into sociology. His fundamental works are .Скачать