Rise of sociology as an intellectual tradition. Classical tradition in sociology of the XIX century

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and federalism. Its major postulates are as follows: · Socialism as the social system must be based on individual and collective liberty and activities of free associations; · The state must be abolished; · The relationships between the subjects of society are built on the principles of federalism, i. e.

a free union where the subjects have equal rights. Although the ideas of anarchism (complete individual liberty, rejection of regulation by the state etc. ) were naпve, the ideas of equality, justice, individual liberty, federalism in social life are still followed by.

Another famous movement in Russia was narodnik movement, or populism. Its ideologists were P. L.

Lavrov (1823-1900) and N. K. Michailovski (1842-1904).

Still of importance are thoughts about power and dictatorship expressed by P. L. Lavrov: · The possession of great power corrupts the best people, and even the ablest leaders, who meant to benefit the people by decree, failed; · Every dictatorship must surround itself by compulsory means of defense which must serve as obedient tools in its hands.

Every dictatorship is called upon to suppress not only its reactionary opponents but also those who disagree with its methods and actions. Whenever a dictatorship succeeded in establishing itself, it had to spend more time and effort in retaining its power and defending it against its rivals than upon realization of its programme, with the aid of that power; · A dictatorship can be wrested from the dictators only by a new revolution. While solving the problem of interaction between the individual and the society, they asserted that the major engine of historic development were actions undertaken by critically thinking personalities .


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