Rise of sociology as an intellectual tradition. Classical tradition in sociology of the XIX century
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it exceeds what is enough for modest life. In the studies of politics and government, M. Weber unveils the definition of the state that has become so pivotal to Western social thought - the state is that entity which possesses a monopoly on the legitimate use of physical force.
Politics is understood as any activity in which the state might engage itself in order to influence the relative distribution of force. Politics thus comes to be understood as deriving from power. M.
Weber is also well-known for his study of bureaucratization of the society so many aspects of modern public administration go back to him. In his work, Economy and Society (1922), he outlines a description of rationalization (of which bureaucratization is a part) as a shift from a value-oriented organization and action (traditional authority and charismatic authority) to a goal-oriented organization and action (legal-rational authority). The result is that increasing rationalization of human life traps individuals in an “iron cage” of rule-based, rational control.
Georg Simmel (1858-1918) is a German-Jewish sociologist and economist, who analyzed the impact of money relations and division of labour on human culture and alienation of labour in his main work, The Philosophy of Money (1890). Through the prism of money G. Simmel considered hidden mechanisms of social life and manifestation of various forms of labour.
For him, money is both a pure form of economic relations and economic value. According to G. Simmel, values are fundamental, underlying relations in the society.
Another German sociologist Ferdinand Toennies (1855-1936) is best known for his distinction between two types of social groups - Gemeinschaft or community and .Скачать