Rise of sociology as an intellectual tradition. Classical tradition in sociology of the XIX century

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It was inevitable in the circumstances that to certain theorists the society should present a picture not of harmony and unity, but of conflict and struggle. Ludwig Gumplowicz (1838-1909), a Polish-Austrian sociologist, was among them. He is well-known for his theory presented in his work, Race conflict (1883).

In the history of mankind L. Gumplowicz sees a never-ending conflict of hordes, tribes, races, classes and other groups. These struggles may change their forms, but they never change their essential character - the exploitation of the weak by the strong.

In other words, a conflict between groups results in subordination of one group by another of which supremacy relations arise, and it serves as the basis for establishing the state. The scientist held that social development rose out of conflict, first among races, then among states, then among other social groups. This is the essence of the sociological theory of the state by L.

Gumplowicz which asserts that the state is based on power, and this contradicts the theory of contractual agreements. In the long run, his views were oriented to give proofs to the theses on inevitability of a social conflict determined by social and biological inequality of races. However, a proposition stating that social groups are basic factors of social life makes sociology of L.

Gumplowicz tied up with the present. If to differentiate two theoretic aspects in sociology - the theory of integration and the theory of conflict, the Polish-Austrian researcher can be considered the founding father of the latter. Maximilian Weber (1864-1920), an outstanding classic of German sociology, is acknowledged as one of the founders of a modern study of sociology and public administration.

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