Society as a system
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Second, such dichotomies consider the society as a stable integrated whole leaving aside a probability of contradictions and conflicts which are to some extent typical of any society. Having made use of all typologies, a contemporary American sociologist Daniel Bell worked out some synthesizing model. He identifies three types of human society: non-industrial, or traditional, industrial and post-industrial, or modern.
In non-industrial society the determining factor of its development is agriculture, in industrial - industry and in post-industrial - information (theoretic knowledge). The other famous triads are a conception of pre-modern, modern and post-modern societies suggested by S. Crook and S.
Lash; a theory of pre-economic, economic and post-economic societies suggested by a Russian theorist V. L. Inozemtsev, a theory of the first, second and third waves of civilization suggested by O.
Toffler etc. Theories of the society's origin There are a lot of theories of the society's origin; some of them are rather disputable. For instance, in “spontaneous” sociology one can distinguish three hypotheses: 1) a natural one which is based on the proposition that labour made man and turned a crowd to a cultural entity of producers; 2) a divine theory says that God made man and bequeathed him the material world and moral law; 3) a cosmic theory states that some from another planet made man and manipulated human development to achieve their laboratory purposes.
But these theories can't explain the essence of the socio-genetic mechanism which is necessary to create a social organization. Of modern scientific theories of the society's origin the distinguished ones are instrumental, sexual, gender, cratic and semantic conceptions. Instrumental conception assigns a primary importance to man's .Скачать