Society as a system
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According to this criterion all societies are divided into those without a written language (they can communicate with words but don't know how to fix them in signs) and those with a written language, or societies that invented the alphabet and can fix words in material signs (letters) on paper, in books etc. Other typologies may be based on the criterion of a dominating religion (Christian society) or language (English speaking society). Social scientists Gerhard and George Lenskis identified four human societies according to their primary means of subsistence: hunter-gatherer societies, nomadic pastoral societies, horticulturalist or simple farming societies, and intensive agricultural societies, also called civilizations.
Some theorists add industrial and post-industrial societies. Marx identified five societies by their mode of production: primitive communal society, slavery, feudalism, capitalism and communism. In social sciences typologies suggested by E.
Durkheim and F. Toennis are also often mentioned. Both theorists suggested two types of societies that served a reason to call their typologies “dichotomies”.
For instance, E. Durkheim identifies traditional (military) and industrial societies applying the criterion of social solidarity. Mechanical solidarity is typical for traditional or archaic society, because people as members of the society are undeveloped and similar to each other.
The society is bound because its members are not differentiated. Organic solidarity is given rise due to the division of public labour; it is based not on similarity but on differentiation of people as it suggests development of the personality. Due to division of labour an individual realizes his dependence on the society.Скачать