The cybernetics movements
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Presidential campaign in 1960, when John F. Kennedy was elected, there was talk about a “missile gap” between the United States and the Soviet Union. Not long thereafter there began to be talk of a “cybernetics gap.
” Some people in the Soviet Union thought cybernetics would provide the theory they needed to operate their centrally planned economy. Consequently the Soviet government generously funded cybernetics research. Some people in the U.
S. government then feared that the U. S.
might fall behind in a critical area of research, if this country did not also fund cybernetics research. In Washington, DC, a cybernetics luncheon club was meeting. The participants included Paul Henshaw, Atomic Energy Commission; Carl Hammer, Univac; Jack Ford, CIA; Douglas Knight, IBM; Walter Munster; Bill Moore, lawyer.
This group founded the American Society for Cybernetics (ASC). The founding ceremony was held at the Cosmos Club in Washington, DC. A grant from the National Science Foundation helped the Society to establish the Journal of Cybernetics.
A conference on the social impact of cybernetics was held at Georgetown University in 1964. (Dechert, 1966) The first conference arranged by the ASC was held at the National Bureau of Standards in Gaithersburg, MD. (von Foerster, et al 1968) LATE 1960S Social movements in the United States - against the Viet Nam war and for civil rights, women's rights, and environmental protection - produced a time of student activism on campuses.
In terms of research it was a productive period for the Biological Computer Laboratory (BCL) at the University of Illinois. EARLY 1970S At a meeting of the American Society for Cybernetics in 1974 in Philadelphia, Heinz von Foerster introduced the term “second order cybernetics. ” (Von Foerster, 1979) The Mansfield Amendment, which was an attempt to reduce campus unrest caused by the .Скачать