The cybernetics movements
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Indeed Margaret Mead wrote an article, “Cybernetics of Cybernetics,” in the proceedings of the first conference of the American Society for Cybernetics, in which she suggested that cyberneticians should apply their knowledge of communication to how they communicate with each other. (Mead, 1968) INTERPRETATIONS OF CYBERNETICS Not everyone originally connected with cybernetics continued to use the term: 1. The cybernetics of Allen Turing and John von Neumann became computer science, AI, and robotics.
Turing formulated the concept of a Universal Turing Machine - a mathematical description of a computational device. He also devised the Turing test - a way of determining whether a computer program displays “artificial intelligence. ” The related professional societies are the Association for Computing Machinery and the American Association for Artificial Intelligence.
2. Norbert Wiener's cybernetics became part of electrical engineering. This branch of cybernetics includes control mechanisms from thermostats to automated assembly lines.
The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, including the Systems, Man, and Cybernetics Society, is the main professional society. The principal concern is systems engineering. 3.
Warren McCulloch's cybernetics became “second order cybernetics. ” McCulloch chaired the Macy Foundation conferences. He sought to understand the functioning of the nervous system and thereby the operation of the brain and the mind.
The American Society for Cybernetics has continued this tradition. It is the only one of the three groups that seeks to promote cybernetics as a transdisciplinary field. Other, smaller groups can also be identified.
For example, a control systems group within psychology was generated by the work of William Powers (1973).Скачать