The cybernetics movements
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Washington University provides an explanation of the continuing heterogeneity of the field of cybernetics and systems science. (Dent, 1996) Dent claims that after World War II the systems sciences dramatically expanded the scientific enterprise. Specifically, they expanded science along eight dimensions causality, determinism, relationships, holism, environment, self-organization, reflexivity, and observation.
(Dent, 2001) However, not all of the various systems fields chose to emphasize the same dimensions. Indeed, each field chose a unique combination. This meant that the various systems fields did not agree on what the key issues were.
As a result each subfield developed its own language, theories, methods, traditions, and results. These eight dimensions have both united and divided the systems sciences. The dimensions unite the systems sciences because each of the subfields of systems science uses at least one of the new assumptions, whereas classical science uses none.
The dimensions divide the systems sciences because each subfield emphasizes a different dimension or set of dimensions. Hence, issues that are very important in one subfield are less important or do not arise in other subfields. Given different questions, the answers in theories and methods have been different.
(Umpleby and Dent, 1999) Perhaps in the 21st century the progress made in developing the field of cybernetics in many disciplines will be successfully integrated. REFERENCES Bausch, K. (ed.
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(2003), Harvard and the Unabomber: The Education of an American Terrorist. New York: .Скачать