Basic perspectives and schools of developing sociology in the XX century
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the society or group as a cohesive whole; · latency, maintaining the motivation of people to perform their roles according to social expectations. In the society the function of adaptation is fulfilled by economy, that of goal-attainment - by politics, integration - by law and culture and latency - by family, school, church etc. One of the central categories in T.
Parsons' theory is the category of social action the components of which are an actor, a situation and the actor's orientation toward the situation. T. Parsons sees an actor - an individual or a collectivity as motivated to spend energy in reaching a desirable goal, as defined by the cultural system.
So the actor operates in a situation with conditions he can't control and means as things he can have control over, but within a certain normative framework. The norms have been internalized by the actor so that the actor is “motivated to act appropriately”. T.
Parsons asserted that action is rooted in norms and bounded by values. So, functionalist analysis often focuses on the individual, usually with the intent to show how individual behaviour is moulded by broader social forces. Though individual actors are spoken about as decision-makers, some critics suggested that functionalists treated individuals as puppets, whose decisions are a predictable result of their location in the social structure and of the norms and expectations they have internalized.
In any case, functionalists tended to be less concerned with the ways in which individuals can control their own destiny than with the ways in which the limits imposed by the society make individual behaviour scientifically predictable. As for T. Parsons, he also contributed to the field of social evolutionism.
He divided evolution into four subprocesses:.Скачать