Basic perspectives and schools of developing sociology in the XX century
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The Structure of Social Action (1937), The Social System (1951), Structure and Process in Modern Societies (1960) etc. Structural functionalism is built on two emphases: application of the scientific method to the objective social world and use of an analogy between the human's organism and society. The emphasis on the scientific method leads to the assertion that one can study social world in the same way as one can study physical world.
Thus, functionalists see social world as “objectively real”, observable with such techniques as social surveys and interviews. In this way functionalism was not new as many of these ideas go back to E. Durkheim who was one of the first sociologists to make use of scientific and statistical techniques in sociological research.
The second emphasis, a key to T. Parsons' theory, is on the organic unity of the society, i. e.
each society is a system of social structures (economic, legal, educational, gender ones) with certain needs which must be met by social institutions for a social system to exist. Goods and services must be produced and distributed in order for people to survive, there must be some administration of justice, a political system must exist, and some family structure must operate to provide a means to reproduce the population and maintain social life on a daily basis. In the structural functional model, individuals carry out these tasks in various institutions and roles that are consistent with the structures and norms of the society.
Four “functional imperatives” that every group or society tends to fulfill are often coded as AGIL: · adaptation to the physical and social milieu; · goal attainment, which is the need to define primary goals and enlist people to strive to attain these goals; · integration, the coordination of .Скачать