Basic perspectives and schools of developing sociology in the XX century
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Park is often called the sociologist of collective behaviour); and most of all, race relations and conflicts of cultures. In the field of method he made valuable contributions as to the use of life histories, guided and unguided, for the investigation of personality. But in the 1940-50s the leadership in developing empiric sociology was captured by Columbia and Harvard Universities.
An important role was played by Robert Merton, a student of P. A. Sorokin who was actively engaged in applied sociological researches at Columbia University.
His activities greatly encouraged the growth of prestige of empiric sociology in the USA as being unity of theory and method. At Harvard University Elton Mayor (1880-1949) and his colleagues were also actively engaged in applied sociological researches. They conducted experiments at Western Electric's Hawthorne plant outside Chicago, starting in 1924 and running through 1936.
The Hawthorne experiments or Hawthorne Studies were intended to bring about a greater understanding of the effects of working conditions, wages and other social factors on worker productivity. The results of the experiments were contrary to the management theory of the time and were a key in understanding motivation factors in employment. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name.
1933 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). They were: · revision of the role of the human factor in production and retreat from the previous conception of a worker as an “economic” man whose pragmatic aims were of primary importance; · discovery of the informal organization within the labour collective that became indicative of complex mechanisms of social life in the organization; · people's work performance is dependent on both social issues and job content;.Скачать