Basic perspectives and schools of developing sociology in the XX century
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Social stratification - division of the society into strata (layers) that differentiate from each other by their wealth, activities, political views, cultural orientations etc. Sociometry - the quantitative study of social relationships; a way of measuring the degree of interpersonal relationships between people. Structural functionalism - a theoretical perspective headed by T.
Parsons with a particular emphasis on function, interdependence, consensus, equilibrium, and evolutionary change. The structure part of the approach is that institutions and structures exist in the society as a whole. The functional part is that different parts of each society contribute positively to the operation or functioning of the system as a whole.
These parts usually work together in an orderly manner, without great conflict. Different parts are usually in equilibrium, or moving toward equilibrium, with consensus rather than conflict governing the inter-relationships of the various parts. Change tends to be orderly and evolutionary, rather than revolutionary or with dramatic structural breaks.
Symbolic interactionism - a sociological perspective which studies how individuals and groups interact, focusing on the creation of personal identity through interaction with others. Of particular interest is the relationship between individual action and group pressures. Weberian sociology - a doctrine elaborated by M.
Weber which is based on the concept of social action understood as behaviour to which humans attach a specific meaning or set of meanings; it is to interpret and suggest understanding of what subjective motives of human actions are, that's why Weberian sociology is called Interpretive or Understanding sociology. Additional literature · Blau P. Exchange and Power in .Скачать