Basic perspectives and schools of developing sociology in the XX century
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Auguste Comte, which were further elaborated in works of D. Mills, H. Spenser and other researchers.
Postmodernism - contrasted by modernism, whose authors attempted to come to new terms with old ideas in attempt to find the “deep structure” of the human experience, postmodernism is identifiable by authors who were highly skeptical of any “deep structure,” regarding all structures as subjective and ideologically tainted. Rationalization - the move away from supernatural to rational and empirical modes of thought. Social conflict - a confrontation of social powers.
Social Darwinism - an attempt to adapt Charles Darwin natural selection principles to human society, thus producing a culture that embraces the “survival of the fittest”. Natural selection, when applied to a society, also includes such factors as organizational ability, talent to inspire others, creativity, perseverance, mental flexibility, etc in addition to physical fitness. Social exchange theory - a theory that focuses on the exchanges that cohere individuals with each other and with groups; it is based on a central premise that the exchange of social and material resources is a fundamental form of human interaction.
Social equality - everybody's equality to be subject to law, equal rights to occupy public posts, equal political rights (as those of freedom of speech, conscious, union etc. ) and equal rights to education (by P. A.
Sorokin). Social mobility - any transition of an individual or social object from one social position to another. Social psychology - a sub-discipline of both sociology and psychology which involves the intersection of the social and the individual where the individual is influenced by the social and, in turn, interacts with the social and affects it as well.Скачать