Basic perspectives and schools of developing sociology in the XX century
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as a means to serve the goals of the social group; community. Gesellschaft (by F. Toennis) - a group formed around the arbitrary will of an actor who sees a social group as a means to further his individual goals, so it is purposive and future-oriented; society.
Goal attainment - the need to define primary goals and enlist individuals to strive to attain these goals. Hawthorne experiments - studies at Western Electric's Hawthorne plant outside Chicago (1924-1936), which were intended to bring about a greater understanding of the effects of working conditions, wages and other social factors on worker productivity. Ideal type (by M.
Weber) - a type formed of characteristics and elements of the given phenomena but it is not meant to correspond to all of the characteristics of a particular case. Integration - the coordination of the society or group as a cohesive whole. Latency - maintaining the motivation of individuals to perform their roles according to social expectations.
Marxist sociology - materialistic interpretation of history influenced by G. Hegel's claim that reality (and history) should be viewed dialectically, through a clash of opposing forces. Pareto index - a measure of the inequality of income distribution.
Phenomenology - a philosophical doctrine proposed by Edmund Husserl based on the study of human experience in which considerations of objective reality are not taken into account. Populism - a doctrine that supports the rights and powers of the common people in their struggle with the privileged elite. Positivism - a dominant theory in sociology of the XIX century that genuine knowledge is acquired by science and that metaphysical speculation has no validity.
It was based largely on the ideas of the French philosopher .Скачать