Basic perspectives and schools of developing sociology in the XX century
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United States by sociologist Alfred Schutz (1899-1959) and developed further by Harold Garfinkel (b. 1917). Another important development in phenomenological thinking can be found in works by Thomas Luckmann (b.
1927) and Peter Berger (b. 1929), whose landmark book, The Social Construction of Reality (1966), has been widely influential, especially among contemporary feminists. P.
Berger is perhaps best known for his view that sociology is a form of consciousness. Central to his work is the relationship between the society and the individual. In his book, The Social Construction of Reality P.
Berger develops a sociological theory “society as objective reality and as subjective reality”. His analysis of the society as subjective reality studies how reality has produced and keeps producing individuals. He writes about how new humans concepts or inventions become a part of our reality (a process he calls reification).
His conception of social structure resolving around the importance of language “the most important sign system of human society,” is similar to G. Hegel's conception of Geist. Among other current sociological theories one can note postmodernism, globalization theory by I.
Wallenstein, European industrial sociology, feminism, ecological movement, communicative theory by N. Lumann etc. Jьrgen Habermas (b.
1929), a leading German sociologist, Anthony Giddens (b. 1938), a leading British sociologist, and American sociologist Randall Collins (b. 1913) are all noted for having constructed theories which synthesize ideas drawn from several theoretical traditions.
Postmodernism is a perspective developed on the French intellectual scene, that has had considerable influence on American sociologists in recent years. Contrasted by modernism, whose authors attempted to come to new terms with old ideas in attempt to find the “deep structure” of the human experience, postmodernism is identifiable by authors who were highly skeptical of any “deep structure,” regarding all structures as subjective and ideologically tainted. Feminism, though not a unified theory, is among the most influential .Скачать