Basic perspectives and schools of developing sociology in the XX century
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He found that assignments on the basis of sociometry substantially reduced the number of runaways from the facility. Sociometry is based on the fact that people make choices in interpersonal relationships. Whenever people gather, they make choices - where to sit or stand; choices about who is perceived as friendly and who is not, who is central to the group, who is rejected, who is isolated.
So measurement of relationships can be useful not only in assessment of behaviour within a group, but also for interventions to bring about positive change. For a labour group, sociometry can be a powerful tool for reducing a conflict and improving communications because it allows the group to see itself objectively and analyze its own dynamics. It can also be applied to identify informal leaders, social rankings and isolated individuals as it shows the patterns of how individuals associate with each other when acting as a group toward a specified end or goal.
Among sociometric tools of frequent use are various tests, sociomatrix and sociograms. When members of a group are asked to choose others in the group, everyone in the group makes a choice and describes why he does so. From these choices a description (a drawing, like a map) called a sociogram emerges.
The data for the sociogram may also be displayed as a table or matrix of each person's choices. There are other important trends and perspectives in sociology of the XX century developed by theorists of all continents. Phenomenology is another approach to sociological theory that has been gaining popularity.
The approach is based on the ideas of Edmund Husserl (1859-1938), a German philosopher, who insisted that the phenomena we encounter in sensory perceptions are the ultimate source of all knowledge. His perspective was brought to the .Скачать