Basic perspectives and schools of developing sociology in the XX century
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way. For interactionists, humans are pragmatic actors who must continually adjust their behaviour to the actions of other actors. We can adjust to these actions only because we are able to interpret them, i.
e to denote them symbolically and treat the actions and those who perform them as symbolic objects. The social exchange perspective complements symbolic interaction but emphasizes the exchanges that cohere individuals with each other and with groups. It has been influenced by many including B.
F. Skinner, John Thibaut, Harold Kelly etc. but its main contributors were George Homans (1910-1989) and Peter Blau (b.
1918). Social exchange concepts include value, punishment, sanctions, cost, profit, reward, and behaviour. The first problem is that of names.
George Homans's famous work, “Social Behaviour as Exchange” led sociologists to refer to it as exchange theory. Anyway, the researcher never liked this term, preferring instead “social behaviourism”. He wanted to emphasize the behaviourist aspect of his work.
That is, he wants the theory to explain whether observable behaviours increase or decrease based on actors' rewards and costs. So his interest is the individual who enters into exchange relationships, in which social rewards and costs determine individual choices. G.
Homans interprets social behaviour as an exchange of activity, tangible or intangible, and more or less rewarding or costly, between at least two people. According to his point of view, actors are profit seekers who want to maximize their wealth while interacting with others with minimum efforts. It follows from it that social exchange is based on a rational principle: a rewarded action tends to repeat, and the higher is the reward, the more possible is the action.
G. Homans developed several propositions on success, stimuli, value, satiation and aggression that explain how social exchange works at the individual level. By doing it the researcher tried to bring sociology nearer to economy by estimating behaviours in the context of a number of economic categories such as cost, profit, reward etc.Скачать